It presents as bulges in the groin area in both boys and girls. In boys it can reach the scrotum. There is a risk of catching the intestine, which slides into the bulging pouch. In such case, the condition endangers health or even life. Hernia will never disappear alone and it must be operated, which will definitively solve the problem.



If it is not extremely large, we wait until the third year of age because this hernia can disappear spontaneously by that time. After that period, it is suitable to operate the hernia, because it will not disappear anymore and it can cause pain, cosmetic defect and it can grow at older age. The procedure is identical in both girls and boys, the result is permanent.



It presents as elastic scrotal swelling or elastic bulge in the groin area. There is no risk of catching the intestine but the bulging causes oppression of blood-vessels and ejaculatory duct; moreover, the temperature in the surroundings of testes is higher than it should be, which has adverse impact on testes development. The operation is similar to hernia operation and it also solves the problem definitively.



It presents as one or both halves of scrotum being empty. The testes need to be released by surgery, placed into scrotum and fix. The objective of the operation is to achieve that testes develop correctly and later have full and correct function. The age suitable for the operation is one year. Testes, which can be pulled into scrotum, are solved permanently by one operation.



It presents as a circular whitish scar on the site of foreskin opening or as a long and narrow foreskin, which cannot be pulled back over the head of penis. If phimosis is significant, a small balloon is created
at the foreskin sack during urination and urine flows as a thin flow. Smegma can gather in the foreskin sack and suppurative inflammations can occur. Circumcision is a solution; we usually make it with the effort to preserve a partial coverage of penis head by the foreskin. A complete circumcision with a completely naked head of penis is possible for health reasons – at diabetes, or for religious reasons.



Is very frequent. It is suitable to carry out a mechanical separation, which is painful, at the end of other planned operation with general anaesthesia. If conglutination is significant, the operation shall be carried out with general anaesthesia.



It presents as significant penis head bending when pulling over the foreskin. It can have adverse impact on penis development and later it obstructs erection. Surgical interruption of the fraenulum is a definitive solution.



Most frequently on feet fingers present as painful inflammation and swelling of nail folds, often connected with suppuration. After unsuccessful outpatient treatment it is suitable to remove nail edges surgically and to carry out nail bed plastic surgery. A consistent surgery with general anaesthesia is a precondition for definitively solving the ingrown nails.



If the child is afraid and does not cooperate, or the birthmarks are on sensitive sites, it is suitable to remove them with general anaesthesia. Every birthmark is sent to histological examination.



Zo zlomenín, ktoré sa po úraze fixovali drôtmi alebo prútmi, treba tieto po zahojení v celkovej anestézii vybrať. Vhodným riešením je jednodňová chirurgia.